VACUUM CONCEPT NOT EXPLORED IN HISTORY OF PHYSICS!

An alternative concept about the physical vacuum leads to unveiling the nuclear structures and subatomic particles as real entities of matter !

(Note: The building elements of the nuclear structures are shown by Symbols in order to simplify the drawings)

Periodic Table of the Elements

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Nuclear Structures
1 H Symbols He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V

Cr(a b)

Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac
 
6.a Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
7.a Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Instruction: Click on any element to view its nuclear configuration. Its structure appears in a new window together with the structures of its neighbors. So the structures of 103 elements are shown in 20 windows. Do not keep too many windows opened!

(a b) - two probable versions of the nucleus (additional study is necessary)

To view the poster form of the Periodic table (nuclear structures) click here (pdf file size 707.5KB). Use the magnification of Acrobat 4.0 to view the structures. (Note: The resolution of this pdf file is not so good as in the files from the clickable Periodic table) 


    The Periodic law of the elements is proposed by the great Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869. After considerable initial skepticism, the proposed law is universally accepted in 1871. Now, 130 years later, it becomes apparent (from the analysis in the BSM theory) that the Mendeleev's discovery is a signature of the building trend of the atomic nuclei. In any atomic nuclei the protons and neutrons appeared arranged in a strict spatial order. The distributed near field of the proton defines the position of the electronic orbital plane, while the orbital trace length is defined by the quantum conditions of the circling and oscillating electron. The spatial order of the protons and neutrons defines the orbital position of every electron. These hidden so far conditions are behind the selected wavefunctions used in the Quantum mechanical model of the atoms.

    The BSM concept of atomic nuclear structure additionally shows that the valence protons possess a limited angular freedom. This feature together with their spatial arrangement provides an explanation about the possible directions of the chemical bonds. This unveiled feature is in full agreement with the VSEPR model used in the structural chemistry.

    The physical model of the atoms opens a new horizon for the structural and bio-chemistry. The orientation of the orbital planes, defined by the nuclear configuration, allows a cascade energy flow through the long chain bio-molecules (see BSM_Application_3.pdf). Using the Atlas of ANS, the plane orientations of any possible quantum orbit can be identified, having in mind the shape of the protons and neutrons and their proximity fields.


Atoms connected in molecules by electronic bonds

(useful material for application of unveiled physical models of atoms in the fields of structural chemistry and molecular biology)


    Examples of some atomic nuclear structures

To see a polar section and view of the atomic nuclei of some selected elements click here

To see rotating nucleus of  Helium and Hydrogen atom click here

To see the similarity between  the synthetic image of Gold atomic  lattice (according to BSM theory) and some  images, obtained by a high resolution transmission electrom microscope click here.

To see the difference between the nucleus of Au (gold) and Hg (mercury) atoms (according to BSM theory) click here:

To see the New vision about the fusion energy go to Applications in www.helical-structures.org (BSM theory is posted in the same website).

Note: The patterns of nuclear configurations are extracted from the Atlas of Atomic Nuclear Structures, with permission by the author. The symbolic pattern system used in the Atlas of ANS is copyright protected.


References

1. S. Sarg. Brief introduction to Basic Structures of Matter theory and derived atomic models, Journal of Theoretics, 2003, 

2. S. Sarg, BSM theory, monograph, 2001    www.helical-structures.org

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